These are external links and will open in a new window. If there's one thing you can count on finding in anybody's wardrobe, it's a pair of jeans - and the chances are those jeans will be blue. The original work trousers, invented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in , were dyed with indigo derived from plants. By , however, indigo was being synthesised, and producing denim blue now involves large quantities of petroleum, as well as toxic substances such as formaldehyde and cyanide. Meanwhile, because indigo isn't water soluble, more toxic chemicals - corrosive to workers and deadly to marine life - need to be added to turn it into a liquid dye. But San Francisco biotech firm Tinctorium believes it has the answer: genetically engineering bacteria to mirror the way the Japanese indigo plant, Polygonum Tinctorium, makes and holds its colour. The company is already producing yarn and is working to make jeans in the next two years in a process that Ms Zhu says will be competitive with existing methods in both cost and price. And Tinctorium isn't the only company working to replace harsh chemicals with bioengineered organisms. France's Pili, for example, says that its microbial fermentation process can save tonnes of petroleum and 10 tonnes of toxic chemicals per tonne of product. The company was founded in by James Ajioka, Orr Yarkoni and David Nugent following a visit to Kathmandu as part of a project funded by the Wellcome Trust to develop a biosensor for detecting arsenic in drinking water.
Tuesday 25 October , His name is synonymous with sailing, exploration, and of course a lucky escape. I had heard of the Bamboo Club before. Its name had come up in conversation several times, and for me, like many Bristolians, it had an almost mythical status. I knew it was a small club just-off Portland Square, and I knew it was famous in Reggae circles, but I was about to learn it was much, much more than this.
Falmata is getting a full beauty treatment - a thick paste of henna, with its delicate pointed swirls, adorns her feet. While it dries, a woman is battling with her hair. Falmata is one of hundreds of young women, most of them teenagers, who have been abducted by militants in Nigeria and forced to carry out missions for them.
A beautifully-filmed portrait of the making of a simple glass jug. A beautifully-filmed portrait of the making of a modern Damascus knife. Director Ian Denyer on making beautiful Slow Television. BBC Four Handmade. Home Episodes Clips Galleries The three masters in their own words. Main content. Three master makers reflect on the challenges and rewards of their crafts.